Diamonds have been popular for hundreds of years, but they have been present in the earth for much longer. About 3 billion years ago (just beneath the Earth's crust), the first diamonds formed deep within the Earth's upper mantle. The recipe for diamonds consists of four basic ingredients: carbon, pressure, heat, and time. The upper mantle is ideal for the formation of diamond crystals. Carbon atoms bond to form these crystals. It is because of this bond that diamonds are such a hard material. There are billions of carbon atoms in a one-carat diamond.
So, how do diamonds get made? It's a time-consuming process. When dinosaurs went extinct, the youngest diamond was at least 900 million years old.
The movement of tectonic plates is also controlled by the upper mantle. These plates caused volcanic eruptions that brought diamonds to the Earth's surface hundreds of millions of years ago. They were discovered by humans around 2500 years ago.
Diamonds are made entirely of carbon. Interestingly, carbon produces both one of the hardest and softest materials in the world (diamonds) (graphite). The latter is formed in the same way that diamonds are, with the difference being in how the carbon atoms are arranged. The Mohs hardness scale, developed in 1812 by a German mineralogist, measures a mineral's resistance to scratching. Diamonds are the hardest mineral, with a hardness rating of ten out of ten, and graphite is at the other end of the spectrum (one to two).
What is it about diamonds that gives them such vibrant colors? Vibrant colors occur when trace minerals and other infiltrators enter the carbon-diamond party. It is extremely rare in nature, occurring only once every ten thousand years. Diamonds are orange and yellow when nitrogen is present, blue and gray when boron is present, and purple when hydrogen is present. Pink and brown diamonds form deep in the earth when crystal lattice distortions absorb green light and reflect a pink hue.
How are diamonds formed? If Mother Nature had a recipe card, it would say: Take carbon atoms and place them about 100 miles down in the earth's mantle, heat them to at least 2200 degrees under 727,000 pounds per square inch. Set the timer for a billion years. Allow to cool completely before slicing and serving.
Diamonds are made of carbon, which is the same element found in all living things. Carbon is the universe's fourth most abundant element and the human body's second most abundant element.
Antoine Lavoisier, a sixteenth-century French scientist, named carbon after performing an experiment in which he burned a diamond until all that remained was carbon dioxide. He came to the conclusion that when carbon mixed with oxygen, it produced carbon dioxide, the same as when coal was burned. As a result, diamonds and coal were created from the same element: carbon.
When purchasing diamonds, it is critical to understand the 4Cs (carat weight, color grade, clarity grade, cut grade). Don't get caught up in the price or carat weight of a diamond and overlook what makes or breaks a diamond: an excellent cut. When viewing a diamond without an independent grading report, request to see another diamond with a report alongside it (and the same 4Cs). The latter will assist you in determining whether the former was graded too liberally.
It is important to consider not only how long a company has been in business, but also how long the owner has been in the industry when choosing a jeweler. Education is also essential. Did the owner just take a two-week GIA diamond course before opening up shop, or did they go the extra mile?
How to find a diamond that fits your style and budget necessitates the assistance of a skilled jeweler. When asked, "How is a diamond formed?" Your jeweler should be more than happy to provide an answer.
So, what are lab-created diamonds made of? The same process used to create natural diamonds is used to create synthetic diamonds. It's similar to the difference between natural and cultured pearls; the former occurs by chance, while the latter is aided by humans.
So, what exactly is a laboratory-created diamond? There are two methods. The first entails high pressure and high temperature, while the second entails chemical vapor disposition. The first method involves immersing a diamond seed in high heat and pressure. As the carbon melts, diamond crystals form around the starter seed. After that, it is cooled to form a pure carbon diamond. In the second method, a diamond seed is placed in a sealed heated chamber that is then filled with a carbon-rich gas. The gas is then ionized with lasers to form plasma. As the molecules degrade, pure carbon begins to crystallize around the diamond seed.
As a result, the diamond has all of the physical properties of a diamond that took a billion years to form.
Blue diamonds are extremely rare and can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars per carat. A lab-created blue diamond costs 10% of that.
How is color added to a diamond in the lab? Orange diamonds form when a solvent used in the lab-growing process becomes trapped inside the diamond's structure with the nitrogen. Pink lab-created diamonds are colored after the stone is grown by bombarding it with electrons and neutrons before heating it.
Chocolate diamonds are simply a rich, dark brown or cognac color. In a laboratory, how are chocolate diamonds created? Simply put, nitrogen and nickel are introduced.
Diamonds are the hardest natural material on the planet. So, what's tougher than a diamond? It's not much. While science has discovered (Longsdaleite) and created (Wurtzite Boron Nitride) materials that are harder than diamonds, they are not nearly as abundant or have the same durability.
How are diamonds given their enticing chocolate color? The internal structure of brown diamonds is more compressed than that of colorless diamonds. More pressure is thought to have been used when nature formed brown diamonds. Graining is much more visible under magnification than in colorless diamonds.